Sunday, March 22, 2020

25 Synonyms for Beginner

25 Synonyms for Beginner 25 Synonyms for â€Å"Beginner† 25 Synonyms for â€Å"Beginner† By Mark Nichol There are a lot of terms used to identify a beginner many of them condescending or derogatory, so pay attention to connotation before employing any of these synonyms: 1. Abecedarian (from the Latin term abecedarius, â€Å"of the alphabet,† coined from linking the first four letters of the alphabet with vowels to form a pronounceable word): One in the early stages of learning. 2. Amateur (from the Latin term amator, â€Å"lover†): Someone who engages in an area of skill or expertise without remuneration, or, derogatorily, a person without experience or ability. 3. Apprentice (from the Latin term apprendere, â€Å"to learn†): One in the midst of hands-on training; originally denoting someone bound by a contract to train with a craftsperson, but now employed simply to refer to someone inexperienced. The term is used in a naval enlisted rank (â€Å"seaman apprentice†) and for the lowest level in Freemasonry (â€Å"entered apprentice†). 4. Babe (from the Middle English word coined in imitation of baby talk): An inexperienced person, with a condescending connotation of naivete. 5. Boot (from Anglo-French bote, â€Å"boot†): A US Navy or US Marine Corps recruit, perhaps from â€Å"boot camp†). Condescending. 6. Colt (from the Old English term for a young horse): A young, inexperienced person. Condescending. 7. Cub (from the word for a young animal): A young, inexperienced person, as in the expression â€Å"cub reporter,† referring to a new journalist. Condescending. 8. Fledgling (ultimately from Old English fleogan, â€Å"to fly†): Originally, use was confined to the literal meaning of â€Å"a young bird just learning to fly†; now, it is also a rare informal, condescending term for a young, inexperienced person (and is used to refer to a new enterprise). 9. Freshman (derived from fresh, as in â€Å"new to a situation,† and man): Originally referred only to a first-year student; now also denotes a politician or an athlete at the beginning of their career. 10. Greenhorn (from an obsolete English word referring to the new horns of a young horned mammal): Refers not only to a naive, inexperienced person but also to someone unfamiliar with customs or procedures. Condescending. 11. Layperson (from the Latin term laikos, â€Å"of the people†): A non-gender-specific variation of layman, originally denoting someone who is not a member of the clergy but now a general reference to someone who is not part of a particular profession or does not have expertise in a given subject matter. 12. Neophyte (from the Latin term neophytus, â€Å"newly planted† or â€Å"newly converted,† from the Greek word neophytos): A beginner or a convert. Mildly condescending. 13. Newbie (a diminutive noun derived from new): A person new to a place or situation, especially one unfamiliar with the conventions and etiquette of online interaction; a newer diminutive of this slang term is noob (or n00b, using zeros instead of the letter o, a variation often used in online conversation). Condescending or even derogatory. 14. Newcomer (a compound noun formed from new and come): Originally, one newly arrived to a location, but now a beginner in general. 15. Novice (from the Latin term novicius, â€Å"newly imported†): Originally, a probationary member of a religious organization, now generally someone with rudimentary skills. Depending on context, can be condescending. 16. Novitiate (see novice, above): A variation of novice, as well as a word for the condition of being a clerical novice, or the name of their residence. 17. Proselyte (from the Latin term proselytus, â€Å"foreign resident,† derived from the Greek word proselytos): A recent convert. 18. Probationer (from the Latin term probare, â€Å"approve†): Someone in the process of learning. 19. Punk (origin obscure): A young, inexperienced person, though it also has connotations pertaining to punk subculture and to sexuality. Derogatory. 20. Recruit (from the French term recrute, derived from recroistere, â€Å"to grow up again†): A newcomer; often used in a military or similar context. The term is used in the lowest naval enlisted rank (â€Å"seaman recruit†). Depending on context, can be condescending. 21. Rookie (uncertain; perhaps derived from recruit): One in his or her first year or years of experience, originally in the context of professional sports but now general in usage. (The back-formation rook is rare.) Depending on context, can be condescending. 22. Tenderfoot (a combination of tender and foot): Originally, someone new to a frontier area, unused to hardship; in the modern sense, a beginner. Condescending. 23. Trainee (from the Latin term traginare, â€Å"to draw† or â€Å"to train†): One learning a job or skill. 24. Tyro (from the Latin term tiro, â€Å"young soldier†): An inexperienced person. 25. Virgin (from the Latin term virgo, â€Å"young woman, virgin†): Originally a specific reference to a female with no sexual experience, now used lightheartedly to refer to someone new to a situation. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:English Grammar 101: All You Need to KnowBody Parts as Tools of MeasurementCapitalizing Titles of People and Groups

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Chrysalids Chapters 11-16 essays

Chrysalids Chapters 11-16 essays Part @ The events start off hear when I distress call is heard from Petra. She connects to the others through the thought shapes and the gang rushes over to help her. She is found lying down and her pony dead and being eaten by a creature. They shoot and kill it. Suspicion among the town is created on how they all heard her form so far away. Petra is taught about the thought shapes. Time moves on and they find out Katherine and Sally have been taken prisoner and they must flee at once. The protagonist David, and Petra and Rosalind set off away from town. Eventually trouble comes with the antagonist. They come face to face with a horseman that was after them and are forced to kill him. This all leads to people of Waknuk to chase them becoming the antagonists. Petras thought shapes from Sealand continue as they learn more about them. They pursue their quest to the fringes, being updated by Michael on the Waknuks search parties whereabouts. As they get into the Fringes they are captured . We find out the spider-man is Davids uncle and another antagonist of the novel. He takes Rosalind and Petra prisoner and kicks David out. David finds Sophie and stays with her. Sophie pulls off a mission and rescues Rosalind and Petra. Part B: I am enjoying the novel very much so far. Right now it is cause of all the action that is going on. The excitement of them being in the fringes, enemy territory holds the suspense of what might happen to them. Anything could happen there and it draws me to read more. Part C: A character that Ive taken a liking to is Michael. He is being very brave and very helpful to his friends. Hes brave that he joins the party who is actually hunting people of his kind to get info on what they are doing so he can pass it on to them. Hes showing that he cares for the others and will be of great help. Part D: A message that is being put across in this section is the idea of being a tea ...

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Crisis Intervention Lesson Plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 7250 words

Crisis Intervention Lesson Plan - Essay Example 1). The primary goal of crisis intervention is to "help subjects in crisis defuse their emotions, lowering the potential for violence in an incident and buying time for better decision making and tactical preparations" (Regini, 2004, p. 1). Crisis negotiations is not a solution to ones problems rather it is a means to calm the subject enough to find other short term means of coping with their perceived stressors short term to end the current crisis situation with minimal force. Before discussing specific instances where crisis intervention is utilized, a brief understanding of the key skills involved in crisis intervention will be outlined as follows: empathy, active listening, being nonjudgmental, and setting of boundaries, the ability to restate the subject's often emotional ideas and thoughts, and problem solving skills. One of the basic tenets of crisis intervention understands and recognizing the range of motions involved in crisis situations. To one degree or another each of us has experienced fear, rejection anger, frustration and depression. This basic human understanding coupled with the skill set listed previously and a police officers tactical knowledge will enable him to effectively deal with a crisis situation. Em Empathy is not a static behavior nor is it merely showing sympathy or pity for the subject's actions or situation. Empathy involves both listening and understanding the subject's current situation. It does not mean that there is necessarily agreement or disagreement merely understanding. The goal of empathy is to develop a means of communicating which enables the subject to develop trust. According to Regini (2004) without some level of trust between the police officer and the subject there can be no peaceful resolution of the situation. To achieve this trust, it becomes obvious the empathy involves the use of active listening skills in order to facilitate the bond between the police officer and the subject. As the term implies, active listening is more than listening to the subject and nodding in approval. Active listening requires demonstrated behaviors by the officer. Without communication no trust can develop; therefore, active listening involves engaging the subject into communication and maintaining that communication. Allowing the subject to vent eases the emotions the situation and begins to allow him to focus on dealing with the short term problem, not escalating the current situation. One of the primary techniques of active listening is reflection - restating what the subject has said and the emotions that are interlaced with it. According to Regini (2004) the FBI has found eight strategies of active listening all of which involve reflection that have proven to be very effective in diffusing a highly charged, volatile situation. These include: Emotion Labeling Paraphrasing Reflecting/Mirroring Effective Pauses Minimal Encouragers 'I' Messages Summarization Open-ended questions/statements (p. 3). One of the most critical aspects of developing trust through empathy is the ability

Monday, February 3, 2020

The Mechanism that Insurance Companies Use to Underwrite and Price Essay

The Mechanism that Insurance Companies Use to Underwrite and Price that Class of Business - Essay Example Word-counts: 3061 Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 Introduction 3 Insurance and Risk Management 3 Marine Insurance and the Mechanism of Underwriting and Pricing of it 5 Marine Insurance 5 Major Classifications of Marine Insurance 7 Underwriting and Pricing Mechanism of Marine Insurance 7 Underwriting: The logic and the practical applicability 7 7 Underwriting mechanism 8 How Underwriting Works in Marine Insurance 9 Pricing the Marine Insurance 11 Basic Principles applicable to underwriting and pricing of an insurance contract 12 1- Utmost Good Faith: 12 2- Insurable Interest 13 Conclusion 13 References 14 Introduction In the view of Economics, Insurance is a technique of risk management that is basically used for compensating the risks of a contingent and uncertain financial risk. Insurance is social in nature and economic in practical since it represents the mutual cooperation and collaboration of various individuals as well as groups from their benefits by combining together w ith a view to reduce the consequences of financial risks. As Owojori and Oluwagbuyi (2011, P. 275) pointed out, Insurance is a comprehensive economic and social device for handling various risks that affect life, property and so on. This piece of research paper explains conceptual framework and theoretical underpinning of Insurance and its basic principles in relation to explaining the mechanism of underwriting and pricing Marine insurance by an insurance company.... Insurance company doesn’t guarantee decreasing of the uncertainty for the individual as to whether the financial risk will occur and it doesn’t alter the probability of risk-occurrence, but it reduces the probability of the financial risk that is connected to the specific event-occurrence (Vaughan and Vaughan, 2007, p. 35). For instance, from the business point of view, when the business man insures his ship against perils at sea, the uncertainty regarding the financial loss in that event will be eliminated. Insurance plays imperative role in the development of economy for the following reasons: Insurance helps pooling of the risks and ensures indemnifying the financial loss against risk of life or property, Insurance gives confidence to entrepreneurs that their loss, which may affect their continuity of the business, will be compensated, Ensures greater flow of money as surplus money in various insurance companies are widely used for economic and government related inv estments, Risk, loss and contingencies, if they are not compensated, will cause many companies or businesses go out of their operation which in turn adversely affects the development of the economy. Risk Management is wider term as it encompasses variety of tools including insurance too. Insurance is one of the techniques for risk management. According to ISO Guide 73, risk management is a coordinated, systematic and structured activities that direct and control a business or other organization with regard to the risk it faced (Reuvid, 2010, p. 58). An organization can take any of different forms of risk management tools. The optimum approach to the risk management is to seek attaining a balanced position, by protecting the firm from the impacts of any negative effects

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Technology and the Future of Pornography

Technology and the Future of Pornography Pornography and the Internet: A Healthy Marriage To say that pornography is a profitable industry is to terribly understate reality. Though it does not have it’s own NAICS ‘code’, estimates of the extent to which sex sells range from at least $1 billion to up to $50 billion dollars annually (Byers 2004, p. 6; Cronin Davenport 2001, p. 38; Davidson 2003, p. 92; Murray 2004, p. 9; Simpson 2003, p. 1). Clearly, the estimates are wide ranging, due in large part to the lack of formal reporting methods for such occupations as â€Å"prostitute† and â€Å"exotic dancer† while adult bookstores may, from an industry accounting perspective, may simply be viewed as a â€Å"bookstore†. In addition, it is important to note that the pornography pseudo-industry is not just a multi-billion dollar force, it is a growing industry. Market Overview The principal reason for its recent explosive growth is in many ways similar to reason for pornography’s first â€Å"boom†, the invention of the printing press. The press permitted wide scale distribution and subsequent access of not just Bibles and books but other ‘subjects of interest’ which allowed the public’s latent desires to be aroused. In more recent times, the internet represents the application of disruptive technology in that it is a form of distribution that, especially for pornography, presents additional advantages over the pornography of yesterday with regards to a distribution that is an order of magnitude larger than the press is capable (Davidson 2003, p. 91). Pornography that is online represents a significant portion of the broader category of pornography in general which also includes print, television and music media. This category in turn is part of an even larger segment of â€Å"sex† which further encompasses adult clu bs, escort services and other products and services that are estimated to contribute the almost half a trillion dollar global industry. Of this, though estimates are difficult due to the nature of the industry, analysts suggested in 1999 that between $2-2.5 billion is from online sources, a figure which constitutes perhaps  ½ of all online revenues (Cronin Davenport 2003, p. 38; Byers 2004, pp. 6-7, Thompson 2005, p. 32). Concurrent with the growth in revenue is the proliferation of a pornographic web content which witnessed an eightfold (8x) growth between 2001 and 2005 (Thompson 2005, p. 32). One net effect of this is an overall industry is that it is both an attractive industry with regards to margins yet is highly competitive and fragmented. In further consideration of the industry, the following analysis is presented: Strengths – Pornography is perhaps as recession-proof an industry as the funeral home business. The product is backed by a millennia of biological imperative and fueled by a never-ending thirst for satisfaction and pleasure. When enabled by ubiquitous internet technology, it is easier to access and this access breeds familiarity which in turn creates a creeping social acceptance. Weaknesses – Clearly pornography is not ‘embraced’ by society as a whole. While there is evidence that its consumption may lead to a host of social ills such as violence or exploitation of children, this industry faces a stigma greater than industries such as alcohol, tobacco, gambling or firearms. Opportunities – Though there are some signs that, in its current iteration, the industry is maturing (Cronin Davenport 2001, p. 45). Despite this, there should be little doubt that, â€Å"†¦the digital age is porn’s golden age† (Byers 2004, p.8). Additionally, the nature of both the industry and the technology presents a very low cost of entry to a trade for it seems there is an insatiable demand. Threats – Perhaps the greatest threat is simply negative stigma attached to pornography as being obscene, indecent, perverted, ‘dirty’ or other negative label. Though consumers are relatively assured of anonymity, there remains a fear of being discovered whether by one’s spouse, supervisor, congregation, neighbors or others. Worth mentioning is the threat of being â€Å"outlawed†. Though pornography functions under a broad interpretation of the US first amendment concerning free speech, illicit pornography still manages to flourish, especially in the age of the internet. Overall, though pornography may be a maturing industry, due in large part to the omnipresence of the internet, it is an evolving one due to the fact that 2/3 of Americans have internet access (Management Today 2005, p. 19: Thompson 2005, p. 32). Of this online activity in 2004, excluding pornography, the market for paid online content was almost $2 billion of which â€Å"personals and dating† and â€Å"entertainment lifestyles† construed approximately half (Thompson 2005, p. 32). This evolution is a consequence to the interest to facilitate the distribution anonymous, affordable and on-demand pornography. This broad distribution, while meeting an apparent pent-up consumer demand, has had the side effect of ‘decentralizing’ a formerly constrained industry. For example, whereas one previously had to venture to seedy locales that were, for the most part, geographically restricted to a certain area of town to partake of pornography, pornography is now virtuall y everywhere (Davidson 2003, p. 97). Subsequently, this decentralization has resulted in a broader acceptance manifested by both wider recognition of its existence and the ‘pushing back’ of the line of what constitutes socially acceptable â€Å"pornography†. For example, consider the 1995 release of music from convicted felon Snoop Doggy Dogg in which group and oral sex was ‘advocated’ (!). Prior to this controversial release, one might have thought that the fundamental laws of economics and the general sensibilities and tolerances of even youth would essentially squelch such ‘filth’ yet, to the surprise of many, the songs in questions hit the top of the charts and sold over 300,000 copies within weeks (Davidson 2003, p. 100). Clearly, such an example illustrates the slipping lines of what is tolerated, accepted and even embraced by society. Technology Enabled Pleasure Marketing With this degree of financial impact pornographers, regardless of perceived social virtues, there is a penultimate combination of marketing- and technology-savvy that is driven by the motivation of the obtaining just a piece of the fortunes that seemingly stand to be taken. Beginning with a virtually irresistible and attractive product, modern pornographers have been at the forefront of profitably e-commerce almost since the inception of the internet. Pornographers are widely regarded as the first and most profitable internet business models (Davidson 2003, pp. 191-192; Vinas 1996, p.11). Though they are marketing a highly desirable product, pornographers have both employed technology and been facilitated by the nature of the technology of the internet in a number of ways to enable their business. Key to facilitating online pornography are the following characteristic of e-commerce (Cronin Davenport 2001, pp. 36-37): Transparency – The internet as a consumptive product is truly â€Å"WYSWYG†, the compu-speak acronym for â€Å"what you see is what you get†. Immediacy – With the internet, one’s delay in gratification is limited solely by the size of one’s wallet (or purse), the bandwidth of connection and the speed at which one can click. Disintermediation – Clearly, the internet is a medium which readily lends itself to a direct-to-consumer business model in which profit-taking, cost-increasing middlemen are eliminated. Price Competition – A key aspect of the ability of the internet to facilitate comparable prices for comparable products is the speed and availability of consumers to ‘price shop’ and vote with their financial patronage for the product which grants them the greatest utility. Convenience – 24/7. No clerks. No â€Å"Closed† signs†¦. And you never have to even get dressed and leave the house. Accessibility – The internet in not only in your home, it is also in your office (a fact that has been the bane of some), it is on the road and if you do not own a computer, you can likely borrow a public access terminal at the local library. Modularity – A consumer is not forced to ‘one-top shop’ – they can fulfill one fetish of their pastiche identity at one site and another at a different site†¦. Something for everyone, or rather, everything for almost anyone. Low Switching Costs – There is little â€Å"lock-in† through contracts or any other means. A consumer can, with little or no direct or indirect cost incursion, switch from â€Å"this-is-my-fantasy† to â€Å"that-is-my-fantasy†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ they can even likely have both, maybe, bandwidth permitting, simultaneously. Impersonality – This factor is one of the most salient in that, within reason, anonymity is relatively assured. For ‘respectable’ persons to be able to acquire smut desires of their heart without having to risk discovery is likely a key driver of the how technology is driving the financial success of pornography. Similar to the nine factors above, other theorists similarly summarize the key drivers of the proliferate success of online pornography such as Cooper’s ‘Triple A Engine’ in which access, affordability and anonymity come together for tremendous synergy (Byers 2004, p. 1). An additional factor that is present in online pornography is found in the very nature of internet technology itself: the ability to gather, analyze and act upon actual consumptive data (Davidson 2003, p. 181). Pornographers are perhaps among the world’s greatest marketeers in their ability to mine data and utilize this information to drive additional sales or, as one report puts it, charge and collect a fee for the customer to have the opportunity to spend even more money (Weber 1997, A1).. Thorns of E-Commerce Though surfing the internet is perhaps functionally anonymous, there are nonetheless bits and pieces of data left behind of which many cases are involuntarily and unknowing. For example, if a certain user, identifiable initially by a specific IP address visits one certain site, porn marketeers make use of computer algorithms to predict additional sites of interest which are then presented as pop-ups or other intrusive internet marketing techniques. For consumers who voluntarily submit information such as might be utilized for â€Å"club†-access, the pornographer has access to even more information in addition to information gleaned from recurrent visits such as which web pages were viewed, etc. As technology has enable pornography, pornographers have quite likely made full use of this technology using, at best, ethically questionable marketing tactics. Such tactics are designed redirect unsuspecting internet surfers to either an explicit web site or to a gateway to one. Once there, pornographers often make it very difficult to leave yet very easy, i.e., automatic, to come back. While it is an accepted retailer strategy to take such steps as utilizing larger shopping carts, positioning commodities such as milk or toilet paper at the back of a store, and to utilized free samples, pornography-in-general has a reputation for ‘virtually’ kidnapping browsers through hiding or re-tasking exit buttons, unrequested software downloads, resetting home pages and other techniques designed to direct consumers to their sites, entice them with their wares and keep them there longer than they might want to stay (Murray 2004, pp. 63-67). The increasing proliferation and acceptance of pornography represents a significant market force for marketeers as this force works ‘both ways’. That is, as pornography gains a larger market, the ‘pie’ grows in size while, consequently, what was taboo becomes more normalized, pornographers must become increasing creative in pushing the envelope. The downside for pornographic producers is that they are fundamentally limited by a fixed number of body orifices and the arriving at some new form of ‘sex’ would seem to be a finite proposition. This dual-natured dilemma is also represented in the efforts of some in society to squelch or at least, contain pornography by the proposal of a â€Å".xxx† internet domain designation for ‘x-rated’ sites. On one side, such a device would make it easier to filter out unwanted pornography yet it requires compliance from both the pornographic industry and a desire for compliance on behalf of the consumer. Additionally, in the event that such a requirement was enacted, it would serve the ‘undesirable’ purpose of legitimatizing an industry that many would just as soon pretend did not exist. Finally, such an action might have the ‘net’ effect of essentially doubling the available cyber-shelf space of pornography as marketeers could simply operation two identical sites (one site with two IP addresses) (Trueman 2005, p. 12a). As pornographers gain financially, they do not do so in isolation. In addition to generating revenue from targeted ad placements in pornographic media, other firms profit directly from its success and distribution. For example, payment intermediaries such as Visa, Mastercard, PayPal and similar firms capture a fixed percentage of every ‘dirty’ dollar and, as was indicated previously, there are ‘many-billion’ of them. Despite the massive financial gain, credit card firms may be under pressure from groups that would prefer pornography not to exist (Lubove 2003). Regardless of the hassles that the credit card oligopolies seek to impose, the sheer financial impetus of the industry is assurance that the mother of invention, if needed, will create a solution that will deliver the goods to lonely, demanding consumers. The Future of Pornography Regardless of one’s love or hate of pornography, it is the nature of fallen man to seek pleasure and avoid pain. It is the nature of the capitalism to meet the needs of any market with funds sufficient to cover the costs. Thus, the question is not whether pornography will exist, rather, the question is what will it look like and how will it be delivered? Currently, the continuing emergence of broadband and multimedia applications is fueling the growth of mobile telecommunications equipment. This segment resulted in over $600M revenue in Europe in 2003 and is projected to grow 5x in less than three years to over $3 billion (Booth 2003, p. 17). With regards to the current version of online pornography, there is likely to be either increased regulation of marketing practices or the growth of third-party software providers to block aggressive attempts and the pornographers’ online version of the telecommunications industry’s ‘slamming’ practices. As cyber space becomes more crowded and competitive with seemingly indistinguishable offerings, more traditional marketing strategies such as ‘adding value’, emphasizing communities and clubs and niche marketing will be more extensively utilized. In addition, due to the social stigma associated with not only pornography but advertising it as well, marketeers will likely focus on programs that are subtle, suggestive and semiotic (rather than ‘in-your-face’). In addition, the continued integration of technology is likely to be a coming event. Mobile phone internet browsers that make computing at home, at the office or on the go a nea rly seamless digital environment in which you can be with either stored or streamed content of your choice anywhere. Finally, it would seem as the next step of the industry and the ultimate future of online pornography will complete virtual sex experiences in which there is participation as well as sights, sounds and sensation. Though â€Å"teledildonics† is a well-explored concept, there are no commercially available products currently available (Balderson Mitchell 2001). Regardless, the arrival in the homes of technology that currently exists with remote surgery apparatus will herald a new techno-sexual renaissance which, as history has witnessed, pornography will eagerly adopt. Works Consulted Author Unknown. (2005, December). Management Today, p. 19. Balderson, M., and Mitchell, T. (2001). â€Å"Virtual Vaginas and Pentium Penises A Critical Study of Teledildonics and Digital S(t)imulation†. http://www.georgetown.edu/users/baldersm/essays/teledildonics.pdf. Accessed February 3, 2006. Booth, N. (2003, November). â€Å"More Bang for Your Buck†. Total Telecom Magazine, p. 17. Byers, L. (2004, April). â€Å"Pornography and the Internet†. University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada (MA Thesis). Cronin, B., and Davenport, E. (2001). â€Å"E-Rogenous Zones: Positioning Pornography in the Digital Economy†. The Information Society, (17), pp. 33-48. Davidson, D. (2003). Selling Sin: The Marketing of Socially Unacceptable Products, 2nd edition. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut. Lubove, S. (2005, March 1). â€Å"Visa’s Porn Crackdown†. http://www.forbes.com/2003/05/01/cz_sl_0501porn_print.html. Murray, B. (2004). Defending the Brand: Aggressive Strategies for Protecting Your Brand in the Online Area. American Management Assocication: New York, New York. Simpson, N. (2003, Fall). â€Å"The Money Shot: How the Porn Business Resurrected the Studio System†. University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada (MA Thesis). Thompson, M. (2005, August). â€Å"Online Recreation†. Technology Review, p. 32. Trueman, P. (2005, September 15). â€Å".XXX Would Legitimatize Porn†. USA Today, p. 12a. Vinas, T. (1998, September 21). â€Å"X-Rated and on the A-List†. IndustryWeek, pp. 11-12. Weber, T. (1997, May 20). â€Å"The X-Files: For those who scoff at internet commerce, here’s a hot market Raking in millions, sex sites use old-fashioned porn and cutting edge tech Lessons from the Mainstream†. The Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. A1. New York, New York.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

The Return: Nightfall Chapter 35

Aprison, with filthy rushes on the floor and bars between her and the sleeping Stefan. Between her andStefan! It was really him. Elena didn't know how she could know. Undoubtedly they could twist and change your perceptions here. But just now, perhaps because nobody had been expecting her to drop into a dungeon, no one was prepared with anything to make her doubt her senses. Itwas Stefan. He was thinner than before, and his cheekbones stuck out. He was beautiful. And his mind felt just right, just the right mixture of honor and love and darkness and light and hope and grim understanding of the world he lived in. â€Å"Stefan! Oh,hold me! â€Å" He woke and half sat up. â€Å"At least leave me my sleep. And meanwhile go away and put on another face, bitch!† â€Å"Stefan! Language!† She saw muscles in Stefan's shoulders freeze. â€Å"What†¦did you†¦say?† â€Å"Stefan†¦it's really me.I don't blame you for cursing. I curse this whole place and the two who put you here†¦.† â€Å"Three,† he said wearily, and bent his head. â€Å"You'd know that if you were real. Go and let them teach you about my traitor brother and his friends who sneak up on people with kekkai crowns†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Elena couldn't wait to debate about Damon now. â€Å"Won't youlook at me, at least?† She saw him turn slowly, look slowly, then saw him leap up from a pallet made of sickly-looking hay, and saw him stare at her as if she were an angel dropped down from the sky. Then he turned his back on her and put his hands over his ears. â€Å"No bargains,† he said flatly. â€Å"Don't even mention them to me. Go away. You've gotten better but you're still a dream.† â€Å"Stefan!† â€Å"I said, go away!† Time was wasting. And this was too cruel, after what she had been through just to speak to him. â€Å"You first saw me just outside the principal's office the day you brought your papers into school and influenced the secretary. You didn't need to look at me to know what I looked like. Once I told you that I felt like a murderer because I said, ;;Daddy, look' and pointed to – something outside – just before the car accident that killed my parents. I've never been able to remember what the something was. The first word I learned when I came back from the afterlife wasStefan . Once, you looked at me in the rearview mirror of the car and said that I was your soul†¦.† â€Å"Can't you stop torturing me for one hour? Elena – the real Elena – would be too smart to risk her life by coming here.† â€Å"Where's ;;here'?† Elena said sharply, frightened. â€Å"I need to know if I'm supposed to get you out.† Slowly Stefan uncovered his ears. Even more slowly he turned around again. â€Å"Elena?† he said, like a dying boy who has seen a gentle ghost in his bed. â€Å"You're not real. You can't be here.† â€Å"I don't think I am. Shinichi made a magic house and it takes you wherever you want if you name it and open the door with this key. I said,  ¡Ã‚ ®Somewhere I can hear and see and touch Stefan.' But† – she looked down – â€Å"you say Ican't be here. Maybe it's all an illusion anyway.† â€Å"Hush.† Now Stefan was clenching the bars on his side of the cell. â€Å"Is this where you've been? Is this theShi no Shi ?† He gave a little laugh – not a real one. â€Å"Not exactly what either of us expected, is it? And yet, they didn't lie in anything they said, Elena. Elena! I said ;;Elena.' Elena, you're really here!† Elena couldn't bear to waste any time. She took the few steps through damp, crackly straw and scampering creatures to the bars that separated her from Stefan. Then she tilted up her face, clutching bars in either hand, and shut her eyes. I will touch him. I will, I will. I'm real, he's real – I'll touch him! Stefan leaned down – to humor her, she thought – and then warm lips touched hers. She put her arms through the bars because they were both weak at the knees: Stefan in astonishment that she could touch him, and Elena in relief and sobbing joy. But – there was no time. â€Å"Stefan, take my bloodnow – take it!† She looked desperately for something to cut herself with. Stefan might need her strength, and no matter what Damon had taken from her, she would always have enough for Stefan. If it killed her, she would have enough. She was glad, now, that in the tomb, Damon had persuaded her to take his. â€Å"Easy. Easy, little love. If you mean it, I can bite your wrist, but†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Do itnow !† Elena Gilbert, the princess of Fell's Church, ordered. She had even gotten the strength to pull herself off her knees. Stefan gave her half a guilty glance. â€Å"NOW!†Elena insisted. Stefan bit her wrist. It was an odd sensation. It hurt a little more than when he pierced the side of her neck as usual. But there were good veins down there, she knew; she trusted Stefan to find the largest so that this would take the least amount of time. Her urgency had become his. But when he tried to pull back, she clutched a handful of his wavy dark hair and said, â€Å"More, Stefan. You need it – oh, I can tell, and we don't have time to argue.† The voice of command. Meredith had told her once that she had it, that she could lead armies. Well, she might need to lead armies to get into this place to save him. I'll get an army somewhere, she thought fuzzily. The starving bloodfever that Stefan had been in – they obviously hadn't fed him since she had last seen him – was dying into the more normal blood-taking that she knew. His mind melted into hers.When you say you'll get an army, I believe you. But it's impossible. No one's ever come back. Well, you will. I'm bringing you back. Elena, Elena†¦ Drink,she said, feeling like an Italian mother.As much as you can without being sick. But how did – no, you told me how you got here. That was the truth? The truth. I always tell you the truth. But Stefan, how do I getyouout? Shinichi and Misao – you know them? Enough. They each have half a ring. Together it makes a key. Each half is shaped like a running fox. But who knows where they may have hidden the pieces? And as I said, just to get into this place, it takes an army†¦. I'll find the pieces of the fox ring. I'll put them together. I'll get an army. I'll get you out. Elena, I can't keep drinking. You'll collapse. I'm good at not collapsing. Please go on. I can hardly believe it's you – â€Å"No kissing! Take my blood!† Ma'am! But Elena, truly, I'm full now. Overfull. And tomorrow? â€Å"I'll still be overfull.† Stefan pulled away, a thumb on the places where he had pierced veins. â€Å"Truly, I can't , love.† â€Å"And the next day?† â€Å"I'll manage.† â€Å"You will – because I broughtthis . Hold me, Stefan,† she said, several decibels softer. â€Å"Hold me through the bars.† He did, looking bewildered, and she hissed in his ear, â€Å"Act like you love me. Stroke my hair. Say nice things.† â€Å"Elena, lovely little love†¦Ã¢â‚¬  He was still close enough mentally to say telepathically: Actlike I love you? But while his hands were stroking and squeezing and tangling in her hair, Elena's own hands were busy. She was transferring from under her clothes to under his a flask full of Black Magic wine. â€Å"But where did you get it?† Stefan whispered, seeming thunderstruck. â€Å"The magic house has everything. I've been waiting for my chance to give it to you if you needed it.† â€Å"Elena – â€Å" â€Å"What?† Stefan seemed to be struggling with something. At last, eyes on the ground, he whispered, â€Å"It's no good. I can't risk you getting killed for the sake of an impossibility. Forget me.† â€Å"Put your face to the bars.† He looked at her but didn't ask any questions, obeying. She slapped him across the face. It wasn't a very hard slap†¦although Elena's hand hurt from colliding with the iron on either side. â€Å"Now,be ashamed !† she said. And before he could say anything else,†Listen!† It was the baying of hounds – far away, but getting closer. â€Å"It'syou they're after,† Stefan said, suddenly frantic. â€Å"You have to go!† She just looked at him steadily. â€Å"I love you, Stefan.† â€Å"I love you, Elena. Forever.† â€Å"I – oh, I'msorry .† Shecouldn't go; that was the thing. Like Caroline talking and talking and never leaving Stefan's apartment, she could stand here and speak about it, but she couldn't do it. â€Å"Elena! Youhave to. I don't want you to see what they do – â€Å" â€Å"I'll kill them!† â€Å"You're no killer. You're not a fighter, Elena – and you shouldn't see this. Please? Remember once you asked me if I'd like to see how many times you could make me say  ¡Ã‚ ®please?' Well, each counts for a thousand now. Please? For me? Will you go?† â€Å"One more kiss†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Her heart was beating like a frantic bird inside her. â€Å"Please!† Blind with tears, Elena turned around and grasped hold of the cell door. â€Å"Anywhere outside the ceremony where no one will see me!† she gasped and wrenched the door to the corridor open and stepped through. At least she'd seen Stefan, but for how long that would last to keep her heart from shattering again – – oh, my God, I'mfalling – – she didn't know. Elena realized that shewas outside the boardinghouse somewhere – at least some eighty feet high – and plummeting rapidly. Her first, panicked conclusion was that she was going to die, and then instinct kicked in and she reached out with arms and hands and kicked in with legs and feet and managed to arrest her fall after twenty agonizing feet. I've lost my flying wings forever, haven't I? she thought, concentrating on a single spot between her shoulder blades. She knew just where they should be – and nothing happened. Then, carefully, she inched her way closer to the trunk, pausing only to move to a higher twig a caterpillar that was sharing the branch with her. And she managed to find a sort of place where she could sit by sidling and then pushing backward. It was far too high a branch for her personal taste. As it was, she found that she could look down and see the widow's walk quite clearly, and that the longer she looked at any particular thing the clearer her vision got. Vampire vision plus, she thought. It showed her that she was Changing. Or else – yes, somehow here the sky was getting lighter. What it showed her was a dark and empty boardinghouse, which was disturbing because of what Caroline's father had said about â€Å"the meeting† and what she had learned telepathically from Damon about Shinichi's plans for this Moonspire night. Could this be not the real boardinghouse at all, but another trap? â€Å"We made it!† Bonnie cried as they approached the house. She knew her voice was shrill, was over-shrill, but somehow the sight of that brightly lit boardinghouse, like a Christmas tree with a star on top, comforted her, even if she knew that it was all wrong. She felt she could cry in relief. â€Å"Yes, we did,† Dr. Alpert's deep voice said. â€Å"All of us. Isobel's the one who needs the most treatment, the fastest. Theophilia, get your nostrums ready, and somebody else take Isobel and run her a bath.† â€Å"I'll do it,† Bonnie quavered, after a brief hesitation. â€Å"She's going to stay tranquilized like she is now, right? Right?† â€Å"I'llgo with Isobel,† Matt said. â€Å"Bonnie, you go with Mrs. Flowers and help her. And before we go inside, I want to make one thing clear: nobody goes anywhere alone. We all travel in twos or threes.† There was the ring of authority in his voice. â€Å"Makes sense,† Meredith said crisply and took up a place by the doctor. â€Å"You'd better be careful, Matt; Isobel is the most dangerous.† That was when the high, thin voices began outside the house. It sounded like two or three little girls singing. â€Å"Isa-chan, Isa-chan, Drank her tea and ate her gran.† â€Å"Tami? Tami Bryce?† Meredith demanded, opening the door as the tune began again. She darted forward, then she grabbed the doctor by the hand, and dragged her along beside her as she darted forward again. And, yes, Bonnie saw, there were three little figures, one in pajamas and two in nightgowns, and they were Tami Bryce and Kristin Dunstan and Ava Zarinski. Ava was only about eleven, Bonnie thought, and she didn't live near either Tami or Kristin. The three of them all giggled shrilly. Then they started singing again and Matt went after Kristin. â€Å"Help me!† Bonnie cried. She was suddenly hanging on to a bucking, kicking bronco that lashed out in every direction. Isobel seemed to have gone crazy, and she went crazier every time that tune was repeated. â€Å"I've got her,† Matt said, closing in on her with a bear hug, but even the two of them couldn't hold Isobel still. â€Å"I'm getting her another sedative,† Dr. Alpert said, and Bonnie saw the glances between Matt and Meredith – glances of suspicion. â€Å"No – no, let Mrs. Flowers make her something,† Bonnie said desperately, but the hypodermic needle was already almost at Isobel's arm. â€Å"You're not giving her anything,† Meredith said flatly, dropping the charade, and with one chorus-girl kick, she sent the hypodermic flying. â€Å"Meredith! What's wrong with you?† the doctor cried, wringing her wrist. â€Å"It's what's wrong withyou that's the matter. Who are you? Where are we? This can't be the real boardinghouse.† â€Å"Obaasan! Mrs. Flowers! Can't you help us?† Bonnie gasped, still trying to hold on to Isobel. â€Å"I'll try,† Mrs. Flowers said determinedly, heading toward her. â€Å"No, I meant with Dr. Alpert – and maybe Jim. Don't you – know any spells – to make people take on their true forms?† â€Å"Oh!† Obaasan said. â€Å"I can help with that. Just let me down, Jim dear. We'll have everyone in their true forms in no time.† Jayneela was a sophomore with large, dreamy, dark eyes that were generally lost in a book. But now, as it neared midnight and Gramma still hadn't called, she shut her book and looked at Ty. Tyrone seemed big and fierce and mean on the playing field, but off it he was the nicest, kindest, gentlest big brother a girl could want. â€Å"You think Gramma's okay?† â€Å"Hm?† Tyrone had his nose in a book, too, but it was one of those help-you-get-into-the-college-of-your-dreams books. As a senior-to-be, he was having to make some serious decisions. â€Å"Of course she is.† â€Å"Well, I'm going to check on the little girl, at least.† â€Å"You know what, Jay?† He poked her teasingly with one toe. â€Å"You worry too much.† In moments he was lost again in Chapter Six, â€Å"How to Make the Most of Your Community Service.† But then the screams started coming from above him. Long, loud, high screams – his sister's voice. He dropped the book and ran. â€Å"Obaasan?† Bonnie said. â€Å"Just a moment, dear,† Grandma Saitou said. Jim had put her down and now she was facing him squarely: she looking up, and he looking down. And there was something†¦very wrong about it. Bonnie felt a wave of pure terror. Could Jim have done something evil to Obaasan as he carried her? Of course he could. Why hadn't she thought of that? And there was the doctor with her syringe, ready to tranquilize anyone who got too â€Å"hysterical.† Bonnie looked at Meredith, but Meredith was trying to deal with two squirming little girls, and could only glance helplessly back. All right, then, Bonnie thought. I'll kick him where it hurts most and get the old lady away from him. She turned back to Obaasan and felt herself freeze. â€Å"Just one thing I have to do†¦,† Obaasan had said. And she was doing it. Jim was bent at the waist, folded in half toward Obaasan, who was on her tiptoes. They were locked in a deep, intimate kiss. Oh, God! They had met four people in a wood – and assumed that two were sane and two insane. How could they tell which were the insane ones? Well, if two of them see things that aren't there†¦ But the housewas there; Bonnie could see it, too. Wasshe insane? â€Å"Meredith, come on!† she screamed. Her nerve breaking completely, she began to run away from the house toward the forest. Something from the skies plucked her up as easily as an owl picks up a mouse and held her in an unrelenting iron grip. â€Å"Going somewhere?† Damon's voice asked from above her as he glided in the last few yards to a stop, with her neatly tucked under one steely arm. â€Å"Damon!† Damon's eyes were slightly narrowed, as though at a joke only he could see. â€Å"Yes, the evil one himself. Tell me something, my fiery little fury.† Bonnie had already exhausted herself trying to make him let go. She hadn't even succeeded in tearing his clothes. â€Å"What?† she snapped. Possessed or not, Damon had last seen her when she had Called him to save her from Caroline's insanity. But according to Matt's reports, he had done something awful to Elena. â€Å"Why do girls love to convert a sinner? Why can you feed them almost any line if they feel that they've reformed you?† Bonnie didn't know what he was talking about, but she could guess. â€Å"What did you do with Elena?† she said ferociously. â€Å"Gave her what she wanted, that's all,† Damon said, his black eyes twinkling. â€Å"Is there anything so awful about that?† Bonnie, frightened by that twinkle, didn't even try to run again. She knew it was no use. He was faster and stronger, and he could fly. Anyway, she had seen it in his face: a sort of distant remorselessness. They were not just Damon and Bonnie here together. They were natural predator and natural prey. And now here she was back with Jim and Obaasan – no, with a boy and girl she'd never seen before. Bonnie was in time to watch the transformation. She saw Jim's body shrink and his hair turn black, but that wasn't the striking thing about it. The striking thing was that all around the edges, his hair was not black but crimson. It was as if flames were licking up from the tips into darkness. His eyes were golden and smiling. She saw Obaasan's doll-like old body grow younger and stronger and taller. This girl was a beauty; Bonnie had to admit it. She had gorgeous sloe-black eyes and silky hair that fell almost to her waist. And her hair was just like her brother's – only the red was even brighter, scarlet instead of crimson. She was wearing a barely-there laced black halter that showed how delicately built she was on top. And, of course, low-rise black leather pants to show the same thing on the bottom. She was wearing expensive-looking black high-heeled sandals, and her toenails were enameled the same brilliant red as the tips of her hair. At her belt, in a sinuous circle, was a curled-up whip with a scaly black handle. Dr. Alpert said slowly, â€Å"My grandchildren†¦?† â€Å"They don't have anything to do with this,† the boy with the strange hair said charmingly, smiling. â€Å"As long as they mind their own business, you don't have to worry about them a bit.† â€Å"It's suicide or an attempted suicide – or something,† Tyrone told the police dispatcher, almost weeping. â€Å"I think it was a guy named Jim who went to my high school last year. No, this is nothing to do with any drugs – I came here to watch my little sister Jayneela. She was baby-sitting – look, just come over, will you? This guy's chewed off most of his fingers, and as I came in, he said,  ¡Ã‚ ®I'll always love you, Elena,' and he took a pencil and – no, I can't tell if he's alive or dead. But there's an old lady upstairs and I'm sureshe's dead. Because she's not breathing.† â€Å"Who the hell are you?† Matt was saying, eyeing the strange boy belligerently. â€Å"I'm the – â€Å" † – and what the hell are you doing here?† â€Å"I'm the hell Shinichi,† the boy said in a much louder voice, looking annoyed to be interrupted. When Matt just stared at him, he added in an annoyed voice, â€Å"I'm the kitsune – the were-fox, you could say – who's been messing with your town, idiot. I came halfway around the world to do it, and I'd think you'd at least have heard of me by now. And this is my lovely sister, Misao. We're twins.† â€Å"I don't care if you're triplets. Elena said somebody besides Damon was behind this. And so did Stefan before he – hey, what did you do to Stefan?What did you do to Elena? â€Å" While the two strange males were bristling at each other – quite literally in Shinichi's case, since his hair was almost standing on end – Meredith was picking out Bonnie, Dr. Alpert, and Mrs. Flowers by eye. Then she glanced at Matt and touched herself lightly on the chest. She was the only one strong enough to womanhandle him, although Dr. Alpert gave a quick nod that said she would be helping. And then, while the boys were working up to shouting volume, Misao was giggling at the ground, and Damon was leaning against a door with his eyes shut, they moved. With no signal at all to unite them, they were running, instinctively, as one group. Meredith and Dr. Alpert grabbed Matt from either side and simply lifted him off his feet, just as Isobel quite unexpectedly jumped on Shinichi with a guttural scream. They hadn't expected anything from her, but it was certainly convenient, Bonnie thought as she hurtled over obstacles without even seeing them. Matt was still shouting and trying to run the other way and take out some primitive frustration on Shinichi, but he couldn't quite manage to get free to do it. Bonnie could scarcely believe it when they made it into the Wood again. Even Mrs. Flowers had kept up and most of them still had their flashlights. It was a miracle. They had even escaped Damon. The thing now was to be very quiet and to try to get through the Old Wood without disturbing anything. Maybe they could find their way back to the real boardinghouse, they decided. Then they could figure out how to save Elena from Damon and his two friends. Even Matt finally had to admit that it was unlikely that they would be able to overcome the three supernatural creatures by force. Bonnie just wished they'd been able to take Isobel with them. â€Å"Well, we have to go to the real boardinghouse anyway,† Damon said, as Misao finally got Isobel subdued and semi-conscious. â€Å"That's where Caroline will be.† Misao stopped glaring at Isobel and seemed to start slightly. â€Å"Caroline? Why do we want Caroline?† â€Å"It's all part of the fun, isn't it?† Damon said in his most charming, flirtatious voice. Shinichi immediately stopped looking martyred and smiled. â€Å"That girl – she's the one you've been using as a carrier, right?† He looked mischievously at his sister, whose smile seemed slightly strained. â€Å"Yes, but – â€Å" â€Å"The more the merrier,† Damon said, more cheerful with every minute. He didn't seem to notice Shinichi smirking at Misao behind his back. â€Å"Don't sulk, darling,† he said to her, tickling her under the chin while his golden eyes gleamed. â€Å"I've never set eyes on the girl. But of course, if Damon says it'll be fun, itwill be.† The smirk became a full-fledged gloating smile. â€Å"And there's no chance of any of them actually getting away at all?† Damon said, almost absently, staring into the darkness of the Old Wood. â€Å"Give me a little credit, please,† the kitsune snapped. â€Å"You're a damned – a vampire, aren't you?You're not supposed to hang out in the woods at all.† â€Å"It's my territory, along with the cemetery – † Damon was beginning mildly, but Shinichi was determined to finish first this time. â€Å"Ilive in the woods,† he said. â€Å"I control the bushes, the trees – and I've brought a few of my own little experiments along with me. You'll all see them soon enough. So, to answer your question, no, not one of them is going to escape.† â€Å"That was all I asked,† Damon said, still mildly, but locking gazes with the golden eyes for another long moment. Then he shrugged and turned away, eyeing the moon that could be seen between swirling clouds on the horizon. â€Å"We've got hours before the ceremony yet,† Shinichi said, behind him. â€Å"We're hardly going to be late.† â€Å"We'd better not,† Damon murmured. â€Å"Caroline can do an awfully good impression of that pierced girl in hysterics when people are late.† As a matter of fact, the moon was riding high in the sky as Caroline drove her mother's car to the porch of the boardinghouse. She was wearing an evening dress that looked as if it had been painted on her, in her favorite colors of bronze and green. Shinichi looked at Misao, who giggled with one hand covering her mouth and looked down. Damon walked Caroline up the porch steps to the front door and said, â€Å"This way to the good seats.† There was some bewilderment as people got themselves sorted out. Damon spoke cheerfully to Kristin and Tami and Ava: â€Å"The peanut gallery for you three, I'm afraid. That means you sit on the ground. But if you're good, I'll let you come sit up with us the next time.† The others followed him with more or less exclamation, but it was Caroline who looked annoyed, saying, â€Å"Why do we want to goinside ? I thought they were supposed to beoutside .† â€Å"Closest seats not in danger,† Damon said briefly. â€Å"We can get the best view from up there. Royal box seats, come on, now.† The fox twins and the human girl followed him, switching on lights in the darkened house all the way up to the widow's walk on the roof. â€Å"And now where are they?† Caroline said, peering down. â€Å"They'll be here any minute,† Shinichi said, with a glance that was both puzzled and reproving. It said: Who does this girl think she is? He didn't spout any poetry. â€Å"And Elena? She'll be here, too?† Shinichi didn't answer that at all, and Misao just giggled. But Damon put his lips close to Caroline's ear and whispered. After that, Caroline's eyes shone green as a cat's. And the smile on her lips was the one of a cat who has just put its paw on the canary.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Indigenous Music of Australia Essay

Australia is a society of many cultures from all over the world. The music of Australia’s indigenous people represents a wide variety of music styles created by the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures. The music styles range from contemporary to styles that are fused with European sounds. The music of these people has become an important part of the society and culture of the people even though the ceremonies may have changed. â€Å"The traditional forms include many aspects of performance and musical instrumentation which are unique to particular regions or Indigenous Australian groups; there are equally elements of musical tradition which are common or widespread through much of the Australian continent, and even beyond. † (â€Å"Indigenous Australian Music. † Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 13 May 2007. 17 May 2007. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Indigenous_Australian_music) The Indigenous populations of Australia have learned from other travelers that have visited Australia for trade or other reasons. The colonization of Australia brought many changes to the way Aboriginal society functioned. It changed the land and how the people went about their daily lives. Before 1788 the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders inhabited Australia. In 1788 the Aboriginal people lived on mainland Australia and the Torres Strait Islanders lived on the islands between Australia and Papua New Guinea, in what is now called the Torres Strait (Dreamtime. net. au. Australian Museum. 17 May 2007. http://www. dreamtime. net. au/indigenous/index. cfm). Many of the Europeans that came to Australia misunderstood the Aboriginal culture and created policies that did not benefit the people. They worked against the people by creating policies that benefited the farmers who moved across the continent using up natural resources and exploiting the Aboriginal people for labor. The European colonists did not understand the way the native people used the land for food and spiritual balance, thus causing many problems. The Indigenous cultures of Australia are one of the oldest in the entire world. â€Å"We’ve been here a long, long time† ( Koori Mail. October 1996). Their ability to adapt over time has allowed them to last. The Aborigines talked of â€Å"Dreamtime† or â€Å"the Dreaming†, which was their version of a creation story. The Rainbow Serpent created the Australian world. As she moved back and forth along the land she created great rivers and from her body the tribes, birds, and animals of Australia emerged. The Aborigines took great pride in the land because they believe that they emerged from it. They believed the Great Ancestral spirits put the plants, animals, and people in their places according to the land forms and spirits surrounding them (FrogandToad’s Indigenous Australia. The Travel Around Company. 19 May 2007 http://indigenousaustralia. frogandtoad. com. au/cultural. html). By the time Europeans arrived to colonize Australia there were more than 700 Aboriginal tribes. Each tribe had their own unique traditions, language, and customs. Traditional music of Australians indigenous people gives great meaning to their lives. There were three distinct types of Aboriginal music. The first was used for sacred ceremonies. The second type of music is semi-scared and is sung by men, with the women dancing. This music was used for initiation. The third type of music was not sacred and was used for entertainment. This is the only kind of music that can be performed by any person at any time. Music was used throughout the Aboriginals lives to teach what must be known about their culture, about their place in it, and about its place in the world of nature and super nature. Aboriginals encouraged their children at a very young age to dance and sing about everyday tasks. (Telford, Hans W. â€Å"Australian Aboriginal Music. † Santa Clara University. 20 May, 2007. http://www. scu. edu. au/schools/sass/music/musicarchive/AusGeneral. html). When the girl or boy reaches puberty he or she learns about totemic plants and animals of the clan and the mythology of their group, also known as karma songs. Karma is the Aboriginal type of oral literature that tells a historical story of the people ( Indigenous Australian Music). These songs have specific melodic formulas that distinguish them from other tribe’s songs.. Because the stories come from oral tradition the music is learned my imitating elders and is passed without writing everything down. Before a man marries he learns more lively and fun songs that are entertainment for the tribe. When he marries and becomes a responsible tribe member he is to depend on the karma songs to keep him strong. The man matures by the knowledge he acquires through song and when he is older his on her is based partly on his mastery of the secret sacred songs of the tribe (Telford, Hans W. ). Some clans in Aboriginal Culture may share songs known as emeba, fjatpangarri, and manikay. These songs are directly tied to the story telling of Dreamtime, when the features of the land were created and named. When they sing the songs in the correct order the tribe could navigate vast distances. They relate the person who keeps the song with the land itself (Indigenous Australian Music). A traditional for of music is Bunggul. This style of music is known for its intense lyrics, and is usually stories about epic journeys. These stories continue or repeat after the music stops (Indigenous Australian Music). A death wail is also a very traditional music style in Aboriginal culture. It is a mourning lament performed in ritual fashion after the death of a family or tribe member. Roy Baker, a descendent of the Murawari tribe describes the death wail, â€Å"You hear the crying and the death wail at night,† he recalled, â€Å"it’s a real eerie, frightening sound to hear. Sad sound†¦ to hear them all crying. And then after the funeral, everything would go back to normal. And they’d smoke the houses out, you know, the old Aboriginal way. † Aboriginal Australians used the resources around them to make their instruments. Most of their instruments fall into the idiophone class. An idiophone instrument is made from resonating material that does not have to be tuned (Encarta World English Dictionary). Their instruments consisted of two separate parts, which are stuck together to make a percussive sound. There are no string instruments in their culture, but they did use a skinned drum type instrument and wind instrument. Idiophones were the most common types of instrument and the most basic. The first example is sticks. Each singer would hold a pair of wooden sticks and clap them together. They could also be shaken to make a rattling sound. Boomerang clapsticks also were used in the same way. Aboriginal Boomerang Clapsticks[pic] If there were no sticks, hand clapping or slapping various parts of the body were substitutes for a pair of sticks or clapsticks. A rattle usually accompanied songs. These rattles were made by holding bunches of seed ponds in ones hand. [pic] Seed rattle. The most well known of all the Aboriginal instruments is the didjeridu. The didjeridu is usually formed when termites hollow out a tree branch. The branches are usually cut to about 5 feet and are smoothed to make a suitable mouthpiece. When blown the didjeridu is a rich and complex sound. The function of the didjeridu is to provide a constant drone on a deep not, somewhere around D flat. The note is broken up in rhythmic patterns and accents by the use of the player’s tongue and cheeks. Constant air pressure s maintained by simultaneously blowing out through the mouth and breathing in through the nose, known as circle breathing. Great stamina is needed to play the didjeridu. [pic] [pic] Most contemporary styles of indigenous Australian music come from the fusion with European traditions. It also represents from the fusion with mainstream styles of music such as rock and country. Artists like The Deadlys give us an example of this using rock, country, and pop. Common traditional musical instruments such and the didjeridu and clapsticks are used to give a different feel to the music (Indigenous Australian Music). Overall, most ancestors stay true to their past roots of music. The remaining indigenous Aboriginal tribes still practice their culture and pass it down from generation to generation. The traditions have all remained the same even though European colonization changed the tribes forever. Even though there aren’t as many tribes remaining, the people of Australia keep their music alive in traditional and contemporary ways. Works Cited â€Å"Indigenous Australian Music. † Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 13 May 2007. 17 May 2007. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Indigenous_Australian_music (Dreamtime. net. au. Australian Museum. 17 May 2007. http://www. dreamtime. net. au/indigenous/index. cfm Telford, Hans W. â€Å"Australian Aboriginal Music. † Santa Clara University. 20 May 2007. http://www. scu. edu. au/schools/sass/music/musicarchive/AusGeneral. html.